我的 UCC图书馆 同事 艾玛·霍根(Emma Horgan) 上周对我们的Instagram帐户进行了“询问存档”会话。获得的作品是如此吸引人,我认为捕捉它会很好 故事 以更永久的方式-因此这篇文章... 

1- What is the difference between an Archivist 和 a Librarian?
Archivists 和 Librarians are both very concerned with preservation, but since Archivists often are keeping the ONLY original copy of something they are more focused on preservation. Preservation meaning long term access... both 档案保管员 和 图书馆员 are very much concerned about providing access 和 research assistance!
Because the material in archives is generally unique, 档案保管员 often have to spend a lot more time in processing / 编目 material than 图书馆员 do. Librarians can rely more on shared 编目 和 standardised processing by vendors to get things ready for the shelf.
Again, because the material in archives is generally unique, 档案保管员 usually can't permit the public to browse their shelves in person, or to check out materials. This has led 档案保管员 to be more personally involved in mediating between users 和 materials than 图书馆员 generally are. Librarians (and this is generally speaking - not true in every situation of course) mainly try to teach users to help themselves to sources as much as possible.
Librarians tend to do a lot more instruction 和 outreach activities than 档案保管员, teaching things like how to do specialised research, track citations, adhere to copyright 和 so on. Archivists are beginning to focus more on teaching 和 outreach than they used to. I personally teach undergrad 和 post grad classes in UCC图书馆 Special Collections, using material 从 the archival collections.

One more note: many people do not realise how diverse both the librarian 和 archivist fields really are. 的re are MANY varieties of 图书馆员 who specialise in all sorts of things... there are 图书馆员 who organise outreach for public libraries: science 图书馆员 who run institutional repositories for electronic articles; rare book 图书馆员 who catalogue unique printed works; academic subject specialists who administer collection development budgets 和 teach research skills; 和 so on. Archivists likewise might be specialists in research methods, acquisitions, born digital records, exhibit curation, or arrangement/description of paper archives. So, all of my comments won't apply to every situation.

2-社会为什么需要档案保管员?/ 您为什么认为档案管理员的工作很重要?
的 most important aspect of an Archivist's job is that we identify what documents 和 information should be kept 和 preserved for future generations to study. Once we make the decision not archive an item, it's gone forever.  

绝对是我在爱尔兰蒸馏厂档案馆中从事的Power's Distillery Collection。 

 I am a huge film buff, 和 fan of digital archiving, so my answer has to be the Walt Disney 封存.

我被说服了 Emer Twomey, UCC图书馆's long standing Archivist. Her passion 和 enthusiasm sold me. I also love learning new things 和 researching- a vital aspect of an Archivist's job. 

Try 和 get as much work experience in the field as you can. Not only does it give you an idea if this job is for you, but it also enable you to build up your contacts in the archival world. Networking is important in all fields. 


伊丽莎白·弗里德兰德收藏. She was a german graphic designer, who fled Nazi Germany 和 was the first woman to ever design her own typeface- called "Elizabeth".

9- 您遇到的最奇怪的事情是什么?
I was working on a collection in the Irish Distillers 封存. I was opening boxes for the first time since they'd been filled in the 1930s, 和 found a really nice pair of gentleman's horn rimmed glasses. Had been swept into the box 从 his desk accidentally. 的y're on display in the archive now as an artefact.  

10- 妈咪呢这是什么故事?

11- 您的档案中最神秘的作品是什么?
我们有很多东西,包括死亡面具!但实际上,这是伊丽莎白一世的牛皮纸文件, containing, we think, royal orders. But the document is entirely in Latin 和 we haven't been able to have it translated. Could be a shopping list! 

12- 您曾经处理过的最酷的物品?

13- 人们如何着手编制档案?
if you are interested in compiling a family archive, get in contact 和 i can give you specific advice. If you want to preserve an item of national/historical significance, i would advise you get in contact with your nearest 封存, or the National 封存 of Ireland. 

14- 您在档案中找到的梦想是什么?
的 secret to eating my bodyweight in chocolate 和 not gaining weight, ideally! But realistically i love finding items that change our perception of history, i discovered a long lost distillery!

15-您如何成为档案管理员? 🙂
To achieve your qualification you can either do the MA in 档案 in UCD, or the part time MAs available 从 UK universities. 的 UCD course is one year, 和 intensive, but it is an internationally recognised qualification, so i can work in Canada or New Zealand if i decided to.

16- 你最喜欢什么颜色?
紫色-版税 😁

17- 你喜欢哪个?书还是电影?
电影, 我是 一个巨大的恐怖迷。爱 Spanish, Korean and Scandinavian horror.

的 unknown. I liken it to being in the ocean, 和 having no idea what could come up 从 the depths! 


20- 您对未来几个月有何期待? 
实际的人际交往!!! *清除 throat* Seeing my 同事s 和 friends again.



琳达·奥康奈尔(Linda O'Connell)的来宾帖子, 梅努斯大学图书馆


我从16岁开始工作。’m now 66. During the intervening fifty years I have been, at various stages in formal employment, a stay at home mum, a student 和 am now finishing my career in formal employment again.

I was born in London to Irish emigrants. 我的 first job, in 1969, was in the London Bridge branch of the Midland Bank. I worked there as a copy typist/administrator for two years. Next I joined IPC (International Publishing Corporation) where I carried out general administration duties. This was a great experience because of the social scene associated with the role. I got the opportunity to attend functions where Rod Stewart, Slade 和 Roxy Music were present. 的se were organised by magazines that IPC published such as Melody Maker. 

In 1973, due to the tragic death of my younger brother, my family moved back to Kerry 和 I relocated to Dublin in search of a job. I signed on with an employment agency 和 I was lucky enough to be offered a job in the library of IMI (爱尔兰管理学院)。的 IMI 在管理的各个方面开设培训课程。然后,它位于现在位于奥威尔路(Orwell Road)的俄罗斯大使馆,不久之后,他们搬到了桑迪福德(Sandyford)的一栋先进建筑。
当时,IMI拥有爱尔兰最大的管理文献集。  的re was no computerised system in operation. 的 books were catalogued manually 和 catalogue cards filed in a wooden card catalogue. 我的 role entailed typing the card for each book onto a stencil 和 printing out the number of cards needed for each book i.e. one for the subject heading entry, one for the classification number entry 和 one for each separate author entry. Some books had up to six cards depending on the number of authors. I also put classification numbers on the spine of books.  正在使用Browne发行系统。每本书内有一个装有两张卡的口袋。借书时,这些卡由图书馆保留。一个以该书的作者的名义提出,另一个以借款人的名义提出。  I also carried out desk duties, primarily issuing 和 returning books to IMI members. We had a diary at the desk 和 we would write in the date the book was due back 和 two days before the book was due we would post out reminders to the borrowers. This was the pre-Internet age 和 we searched the card catalogue to find books.

我在这里度过了愉快的时光 IMI, it was very much a customer focussed library 和 was ahead of its time. In 1983 I left the organisation to raise a family, however I kept in touch with the library 和 worked on projects on an ad hoc basis, for example the annual salary surveys.
In 1999, when my children were older, I enrolled on a Community Employment Scheme in Celbridge. This lasted for two years 和 it introduce me to the idea of going back to education.  I subsequently enrolled in a FETAC (Further Education 和 Training Awards Council) course. This three-year programme included computer skills, English, Business Studies 和 other subjects. 的re were annual exams in each subject. During this time I also completed the Leaving Certificate English exam. At the end of the course, I was encouraged by the course co-ordinator to apply for a degree programme in 梅努斯大学 as a mature student. I was successful in the three panel interview 和 was accepted in the Arts degree programme. I chose Sociology, Celtic studies 和 Anthropology as my three subjects. This degree programme was a big step up 从 my previous education experience. I really enjoyed my time as an undergraduate in 梅努斯大学. I met wonderful people 和 I was supported 和 encouraged by the University to succeed. After three years I was awarded a second class honours degree, an achievement I am still very proud of today.

During my time as a student I availed of the University Library facilities on a regular basis. I applied for an advertised contract role in 2005 和 was fortunate enough to be offered a job as part of what is now the Engagement &信息服务(EIS)团队。一世’在过去的15年中一直担任该职位。我是一个由9人组成的团队的成员,他们在‘coalface’ dealing with students, faculty 和 external members. Our team deals with a huge volume of queries, 从 circulation enquires, helping sourcing material 和 general assistance. 的 library is a very busy environment 和 no two days are the same. I have witnessed many changes in the Library.  最大的变化是技术的使用,它取代了许多耗时的手动过程。

As detailed above, one of my earliest jobs was in a library 和 I am finishing my career in a library. To have a successful career you need to be versatile, adaptable 和 willing to learn the new skills required as the role changes. Some aspects of the role have not changed since I first started my career, being customer focused, dedicated, hardworking 和 an ability to get on with your 同事s, are as important today 和 they were back fifty years ago.
As I near my retirement, I hope that I can bring the skills I have learned to the next phase of my life by actively participating in local clubs, volunteering for charities 和 joining the Retired staff Association in 梅努斯大学.



来宾留言者 帕特里夏·莫洛尼(Patricia Moloney)利默里克大学DónalÓSúilleabháin图书馆图书管理员

上周在图书馆推特上进行了转录查询之后,这些ClóGaelach / Gaelic字体的简短注释可能会引起以前很少接触爱尔兰语言的编目者的​​兴趣。

Almost all texts published in the Irish language up to the mid-20th century, were printed using the Cló Gaelach, a family of Gaelic typefaces (also known as Irish type 和 Irish character). 的 Cló Gaelach is modelled on an angular form of calligraphy (the insular minuscule script) based on the Latin alphabet, which developed in the Irish medieval monastic 脚本。 (有关爱尔兰抄写传统的更多历史信息,请参阅蒂莫西·O的《爱尔兰手》 ’Neill). Traditionally the letters j, k, q, v, w, x, y 和 z were not used in the Irish language, but in later centuries they began to appear in loanwords e.g. júdó (Judo); x-gha (x-ray); zú (zoo).

最早出版的爱尔兰语书籍的主题是宗教。根据皇家命令,是爱尔兰人的首个起源(被称为伊丽莎白女王’s Irish type) was cast in London before 1571 和 was sent to Dublin where immediately an Irish printing press was set up in order to facilitate the production of religious texts. Regarding printing terminology, in traditional printing where metal moveable type is used, the term ‘fount’ (later ‘font’)是指以字体设计形式创建/铸造的物理金属字母。文体变体创建一个字体家族,在这种情况下为ClóGaelach或Gaelic字体/爱尔兰字体。

爱尔兰归正教会的新约圣经爱尔兰语译本发行,是使用伊丽莎白女王印制的’s Irish type, (a hybrid 源头 of Irish 和 Roman letters), dismayed the Irish Franciscans in Louvain. In response, the monastic college arranged for the design of what later came to be regarded as the first authentic Irish typeface, (Louvain Irish type), 和 this was used for the printing of the catechism of Friar Bonventura O’侯赛(Giolla BrighdeÓhEódhasa),1611年。  Later typeface designs which form part of the Gaelic typeface family include: Parker Irish type (1787); Petrie A (1835); B (1850); C (1856) 和 more recently, Colum Cille (1936) which was designed by Colm O’三蜡烛出版社的Lochlainn。 (有关爱尔兰字体历史的更多信息,请参阅Dermot McGuinne的爱尔兰字体设计)。

除26个拉丁字母外,ClóGaelach / Gaelic字体还必须包含所有带有síneadhfada(a“long sign”会延长元音的声音)。 要在元音上加上尖锐的重音/síneadhfada(而不是从耗时的符号菜单中插入特殊字符),对于Windows中的快速方法,请按住Alt Gr键,然后按元音产生á,é,í,ó或ú。  Again, in Windows, for capital letters, hold down the Alt Gr 和 the Shift key together, 和 then press the key for the vowel to produce Á, É, Í Ó or Ú.

On the Apple Mac, holding down the option key at the same time as the key for e 和 pressing the key for the vowel that needs the accent/fada will produce á, é, í, ó or ú.  For capitals, hold down the option key, the key for e, the Shift key 和 the vowel that needs the accent/fada added to produce Á, É, Í Ó or Ú. It should be emphasised that the inclusion of the síneadh fada is very important for meaning e.g. the word fear = man, but féar = grass.

的 Gaelic typeface includes a set of consonants with a dot above (known as a ponc séimhithe "dot of lenition", séimhiú "lenition" or buailte "struck")。 Since the establishment of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil/the Official Standard of modern Irish in the mid-20th century, 和 the adoption of the roman typeface for printing in the Irish language, the letter h is inserted after the relevant consonant to indicate lenition instead of the overdot. Special codes exist which permit display of the overdot séimhiú but for the purposes of 编目, the letters Ḃḃ Ċċ Ḋḋ Ḟḟ Ġġ Ṁṁ Ṗṗ Ṡṡ Ṫṫ可能被转录为Bhbh Chch Dhdh Fhfh Ghgh Mhmh Phph Shsh Thth.

泰隆时代的象征⟨⁊⟩,在拉丁语中表示et等字;爱尔兰语(‘and’(英语),是简写系统(notae Tironianae或Tironian音符)的残余,据信是由Marcus Tullius Tiro(卒于公元前4年)开发的。  Tiro was the confidential secretary, literary adviser, 和 former slave of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC), the Roman philosopher, lawyer, statesman who was renowned for his prose style. Tiro was freed by Cicero in 53 BC 和 following the philosopher’死后,蒂罗出版了一些《西塞罗》’s speeches 和 letters, in addition to writing a biography. Medieval monastic scribes used many abbreviations, including Tironian notes. 泰隆时代的象征⁊ survived in use in Latin 和 Irish language manuscripts to represent et 和 ocus/agus respectively 和 eventually became an essential element of the Gaelic typeface. 泰隆时代的象征⁊可能被转录为‘agus’出于编目目的。

Early logo of the Irish Department of 帖子 和 Telegraphs/ An Roinn Puist 阿古斯 Telegrafa,  图片:维基百科
图片作者 理查德·麦考尔Pixabay
Clóliosta,爱尔兰语印刷,1571年–1871: An attempt at narrative bibliography, by Richard Sharpe 和 Mícheál Hoyne (soon to be published by the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies), is 从开始到1871年的爱尔兰印刷品目录,旨在记录“the title 和 imprint of every item entered, a concise material description, identification of the Irish type used where relevant, the printer 和 place of printing, 和 references to appropriate bibliographical repertories”(dias.ie/cloliosta)。

On 2019年3月5日,理查德·夏普(Richard Sharpe)教授(牛津大学外交学教授)在   the Library Association of Ireland Cataloguing 和 Metadata Group Annual General Meeting during which he presented an overview of the Clóliosta catalogue project 和 where he requested the assistance of cataloguers 和 图书馆员 in order to alert the editors to the existence of little-known or obscure copies 和 editions.

理查德·夏普(Richard Sharpe)教授于2019年3月5日在爱尔兰国家图书馆举行的LAICMG年度股东大会上致辞。照片:Yvette Campbell
Copies of the draft Clóliosta were made available to curators in libraries with relevant Irish holdings 和 the latest draft is now available as a PDF for download 从 the website of the DIAS 这里. 的 level of detail provided in the Clóliosta renders it an invaluable resource to cataloguers of Irish language publications who wish to add scholarly notes to records, including identification of typefaces 和 printing houses, 和 to those researchers interested in the book history 和 the history of print culture in the Irish language.

的 sad news last week of the untimely death of Professor Richard Sharpe, renowned scholar, bibliographer, 和 supporter of libraries, came as a great shock to many in the library world. 

Ar dheisDégo rahh an anam uasal。

  • O'Neill, Timothy, 的 Irish hand : scribes 和 their manuscripts 从 the earliest times, Cork University Press in association with the Keough Naughton Notre Dame Centre, Dublin, 2014 (new edition). 
  • McGuinne,Dermot,爱尔兰字体设计: 爱尔兰字符印刷类型的历史,爱尔兰学术出版社,1992年
  • Hoyne, Mícheál; Sharpe, Richard, (eds.), Clóliosta , //www.dias.ie/celt/celt-publications-2/cloliosta/ [Accessed 31 游行, 2020].
帕特里夏·莫洛尼(Patricia Moloney) is a librarian in the Glucksman Library, University of Limerick, where she is cataloguer of the Dónal Ó Súilleabháin Collection in the Special Collections 和 档案 Department. She is the current Secretary of the Library Association of Ireland Cataloguing 和 Metadata Group.