2020年4月2日

对较旧的爱尔兰语言材料进行分类:关于ClóGaelach的一些简短说明。

来宾留言者 帕特里夏·莫洛尼(Patricia Moloney)利默里克大学DónalÓSúilleabháin图书馆图书管理员

上周在图书馆推特上进行了转录查询之后,这些ClóGaelach / Gaelic字体的简短注释可能会引起以前很少接触爱尔兰语言的编目者的​​兴趣。

















Almost all texts published in the Irish language up to the mid-20th century, were printed using the Cló Gaelach, a family of Gaelic typefaces (also known as Irish type 和 Irish character). The Cló Gaelach is modelled on an angular form of calligraphy (the insular minuscule script) based on the Latin alphabet, which developed in the Irish medieval monastic 脚本。 (有关爱尔兰抄写传统的更多历史信息,请参阅蒂莫西·O的《爱尔兰手》’Neill). Traditionally the letters j, k, q, v, w, x, y 和 z were not used in the Irish language, but in later centuries they began to appear in loanwords e.g. júdó (Judo); x-gha (x-ray); zú (zoo).











爱尔兰字体设计
最早出版的爱尔兰语书籍的主题是宗教。根据皇家命令,是爱尔兰人的首个起源(被称为伊丽莎白女王’s Irish type) was cast in London before 1571 和 was sent to Dublin where immediately an Irish printing press was set up in order to facilitate the production of religious texts. Regarding printing terminology, in traditional printing where metal moveable type is used, the term ‘fount’ (later ‘font’)是指以字体设计形式创建/铸造的物理金属字母。文体变体创建一个字体家族,在这种情况下为ClóGaelach或Gaelic字体/爱尔兰字体。

爱尔兰归正教会的新约圣经爱尔兰语译本发行,是使用伊丽莎白女王印制的’s Irish type, (a hybrid 源头 of Irish 和 Roman letters), dismayed the Irish Franciscans in Louvain. In response, the monastic college arranged for the design of what later came to be regarded as the first authentic Irish typeface, (Louvain Irish type), 和 this was used for the printing of the catechism of Friar Bonventura O’侯赛(Giolla BrighdeÓhEódhasa),1611年。  Later typeface designs which form part of the Gaelic typeface family include: Parker Irish type (1787); Petrie A (1835); B (1850); C (1856) 和 more recently, Colum Cille (1936) which was designed by Colm O’三蜡烛出版社的Lochlainn。 (有关爱尔兰字体历史的更多信息,请参阅Dermot McGuinne的爱尔兰字体设计)。











转录
西尼亚德·法达
除26个拉丁字母外,ClóGaelach / Gaelic字体还必须包含所有带有síneadhfada(a“long sign”会延长元音的声音)。 要在元音上加上尖锐的重音/síneadhfada(而不是从耗时的符号菜单中插入特殊字符),对于Windows中的快速方法,请按住Alt Gr键,然后按元音产生á,é,í,ó或ú。  Again, in Windows, for capital letters, hold down the Alt Gr 和 the Shift key together, 和 then press the key for the vowel to produce Á, É, Í Ó or Ú.

On the Apple Mac, holding down the option key at the same time as the key for e 和 pressing the key for the vowel that needs the accent/fada will produce á, é, í, ó or ú.  For capitals, hold down the option key, the key for e, the Shift key 和 the vowel that needs the accent/fada added to produce Á, É, Í Ó or Ú. It should be emphasised that the inclusion of the síneadh fada is very important for meaning e.g. the word fear = man, but féar = grass.

塞缪
The Gaelic typeface includes a set of consonants with a dot above (known as a ponc séimhithe "dot of lenition", séimhiú "lenition" or buailte "struck")。 Since the establishment of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil/the Official Standard of modern Irish in the mid-20th century, 和 the adoption of the roman typeface for printing in the Irish language, the letter h is inserted after the relevant consonant to indicate lenition instead of the overdot. Special codes exist which permit display of the overdot séimhiú but for the purposes of 编目, the letters Ḃḃ Ċċ Ḋḋ Ḟḟ Ġġ Ṁṁ Ṗṗ Ṡṡ Ṫṫ可能被转录为Bhbh Chch Dhdh Fhfh Ghgh Mhmh Phph Shsh Thth.

图片:维基百科
泰罗尼亚符号⁊
泰隆时代的象征⟨⁊⟩,在拉丁语中表示et等字;爱尔兰语(‘and’(英语),是简写系统(notae Tironianae或Tironian音符)的残余,据信是由Marcus Tullius Tiro(卒于公元前4年)开发的。  Tiro was the confidential secretary, literary adviser, 和 former slave of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC), the Roman philosopher, lawyer, statesman who was renowned for his prose style. Tiro was freed by Cicero in 53 BC 和 following the philosopher’死后,蒂罗出版了一些《西塞罗》’s speeches 和 letters, in addition to writing a biography. Medieval monastic scribes used many abbreviations, including Tironian notes. 泰隆时代的象征⁊ survived in use in Latin 和 Irish language manuscripts to represent et 和 ocus/agus respectively 和 eventually became an essential element of the Gaelic typeface. 泰隆时代的象征⁊可能被转录为‘agus’出于编目目的。

Early logo of the Irish Department of 帖子 和 Telegraphs/ An Roinn Puist 阿古斯 Telegrafa,  图片:维基百科
图片作者 理查德·麦考尔Pixabay
添加学术笔记–识别样式变体等
Clóliosta,爱尔兰语印刷,1571年–1871: An attempt at narrative bibliography, by Richard Sharpe 和 Mícheál Hoyne (soon to be published by the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies), is 从开始到1871年的爱尔兰印刷品目录,旨在记录“the title 和 imprint of every item entered, a concise material description, identification of the Irish type used where relevant, the printer 和 place of printing, 和 references to appropriate bibliographical repertories”(dias.ie/cloliosta)。

On 2019年3月5日,理查德·夏普(Richard Sharpe)教授(牛津大学外交学教授)在  the Library Association of Ireland Cataloguing 和 Metadata Group Annual General Meeting during which he presented an overview of the Clóliosta catalogue project 和 where he requested the assistance of cataloguers 和 librarians in order to alert the editors to the existence of little-known or obscure copies 和 editions.

理查德·夏普(Richard Sharpe)教授于2019年3月5日在爱尔兰国家图书馆举行的LAICMG年度股东大会上致辞。照片:Yvette Campbell
Copies of the draft Clóliosta were made available to curators in libraries with relevant Irish holdings 和 the latest draft is now available as a PDF for download 从 the website of the DIAS 这里. The level of detail provided in the Clóliosta renders it an invaluable resource to cataloguers of Irish language publications who wish to add scholarly notes to records, including identification of typefaces 和 printing houses, 和 to those researchers interested in the book history 和 the history of print culture in the Irish language.

The sad news last week of the untimely death of Professor Richard Sharpe, renowned scholar, bibliographer, 和 supporter of libraries, came as a great shock to many in the library world. 

Ar dheisDégo rahh an anam uasal。

进一步阅读
  • O'Neill, Timothy, The Irish hand : scribes 和 their manuscripts 从 the earliest times, Cork University Press in association with the Keough Naughton Notre Dame Centre, Dublin, 2014 (new edition). 
  • McGuinne,Dermot,爱尔兰字体设计: 爱尔兰字符印刷类型的历史,爱尔兰学术出版社,1992年
  • Hoyne, Mícheál; Sharpe, Richard, (eds.), Clóliosta , //www.dias.ie/celt/celt-publications-2/cloliosta/ [Accessed 31 游行, 2020].
帕特里夏·莫洛尼(Patricia Moloney) is a librarian in the Glucksman Library, University of Limerick, where she is cataloguer of the Dónal Ó Súilleabháin Collection in the Special Collections 和 档案 Department. She is the current Secretary of the Library Association of Ireland Cataloguing 和 Metadata Group.

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